When the piston is just after top dead centre the pressure inside the cylinder can rise as high as 140 bar (14000kN/m2). This acts downwards through the piston rod and con-rod, pushing the crankshaft down into the bearing pockets. At the same time, the pressure acts upwards, trying to lift the cylinder cover. The cylinder head studs screwed into the entablature prevent this happening and so this upward acting force tries to lift the entablature from the frames and the frames from the bedplate, putting the fitted location bolts into tension.
As the piston moves down the cylinder the pressure in the cylinder falls, and then rises again as the piston changes direction and moves upwards on the compression stroke. This means that the fitted bolts are under are cyclic stress. Because they are not designed to withstand such stresses they would soon fail with disastrous consequences.
To hold the bedplate , frames and entablature firmly together in compression, and to transmit the firing forces back to the bedplate, long tie bolts are fitted through these three components and then tightened hydraulically. To prevent excessive bending moments in the transverse girders, the tie bolts are positioned as close to the centre of the crankshaft as possible. Because the tie bolts are so close to the crankshaft, some engines employ jack bolts to hold the crankshaft main bearing cap in position instead of conventional studs and nuts.